The Unified Foundational Ontology (UFO)

foundational ontology


1. Ontology Description

The Unified Foundational Ontology (UFO) is developed based on a number of theories from Formal Ontology, Philosophical Logics, Philosophy of Language, Linguistics and Cognitive Psychology. UFO is divided in three parts: an ontology of endurants (objects), an ontology of perdurants (events), and an ontology of social entities. UFO's ontological distinctions are used for classifying SEON concepts, e.g., as objects, actions, co mmitments, agents, roles, goals and so on. UFO provides the necessary grounding for the concepts and relations of all networked ontologies.
This specification is being documented. For further details on UFO, see doc.utwente.nl/50826/1/thesis_Guizzardi.pdf.


2. Related Ontologies

Networked ontologies used by UFO:

Ontology Relation Integration Level
Ontologies (re)used by UFO.

3. Ontology Models


3.1. MLT

Figure 1 presents the conceptual model of the MLT subontology.

Figure 1. MLT conceptual model.


3.2. UFO-A

Figure 2 presents the conceptual model of the UFO-A subontology.

Figure 2. UFO-A conceptual model.


3.2.1. UFO-A Qualities

Figure 3 presents the conceptual model of the Qualities subontology.

Figure 3. Qualities conceptual model.


3.3. UFO-B

Figure 4 presents the conceptual model of the UFO-B subontology.

Figure 4. UFO-B conceptual model.


3.4. UFO-C

Figure 5 presents the conceptual model of the Mental Moments subontology.

Figure 5. Mental Moments conceptual model.


4. Concepts Definition

The following table shows the definitions for UFO concepts.

Concept Definition

2ndOT

3rdOT

Abstract Particular

Abstract Thing

Action

Actions are intentional events, i.e. they are caused by Intentions. Actions are events which instantiate a Plan (Action Universal) with the specific purpose of satisfying (the propositional content of) some Intention.

Action Contribution

Action Contribution is a participation that are intentional.

Action Universal

Agent

Agents are Substantials (Functional Complexes or Collectives) that can bear special kinds of Intrinsic Moments named Intentional Moments.

Agent Participation

Anti-Rigid Mixin Universal

Anti-Rigid Sortal Universal

Appointment

Appointment Goal

Atomic Action

Atomic Action Universal

Atomic Event

Atomic Events are those events which have no proper parts, i.e., events which cannot be further decomposed.

Belief

Category

Change

Closed Appointment

Closed Commitment

Closed Commitment Universal

Collective Social Agent

Commitment

Commitment Universal

Complex Action

A Complex Action is composed of two or more Participations. These participations can themselves be intentional (i.e., be themselves actions) or unintentional events. For @ex, the stabbing of Caesar by Brutus includes the intentional participation of Brutus and the unintentional. participation of Caesar and the knife. In a complex action, at least one participation should be intentional, i.e., an action contribution

Complex Action Universal

Complex Closed Appointment

Complex Closed Commitment

Complex Commitment

Complex Event

Complex events are aggregations of at least two disjoint events. A Complex Event is existentially dependent on all its proper parts and, indirectly, to the objects these proper parts depend on.

Composed Quality Universal

Concrete Particular

Creation

Delegation

Delegatum

Desire

Disposition

Dispositions are properties (moments) that are only manifested in particular situations and that can also fail to be manifested. When manifested, they are manifested through the occurrence of events. Take for example the disposition of a magnet m to attract metallic material. The object m has this disposition even if it is never manifested, for example, because it is never close to any magnetic material. Nonetheless, m can certainly be said to possess that intrinsic moment, which it shares with other magnets.

Disposition

Endurant

Endurants are said to be wholly present whenever they are present, i.e., they are in time. They can be understood in contrast with the category of Perdurants (Processes, Events). Examples of endurants are a house, a person, the Moon, an amount of sand. For instance, we can say that an individual John weights 80kg at in circumstance c1 but 68kg at in circumstance c2. Nonetheless, we are in these two cases referring to the same individual.

Endurant Universal

Entity

Entity is the topmost category of UFO, representing anything, concrete or abstract, and both types and individuals.

Event (Perdurant)

Events (also called perdurants) are individuals composed of temporal parts. They happen in time in the sense that they extend in time accumulating temporal parts. @Examples of events are a conversation, a football game, a symphony execution, a birthday party, or a particular business process.

Event Universal

Expression

Externally Dependent Moment

Fact

Formal Relation

Fulfilled

Function

Function is a specialization of Set that maps instances of a Quality Universal to points in a Quality Structure.

Function

Function Universal

Goal

The propositional content of an Intention.

High Order Universal

Higher-Order Object Kind

Individual

Intention

Intentions are desired state of affairs (situations) for which the agent commits at pursuing (@e.g., the Intention of going to a beach resort for the next summer break).

Intentional Moment

The capacity of some properties of certain individuals to refer to possible Situations of reality. Every intentional moment has a propositional content (Proposition), which is an abstract representation of a class of situations referred by that intentional moment.

Interaction

Internal Closed Commitment Universal

Internal Commitment Universal

Interval MeaRefDimension

Intrinsic Moment

Intrinsic Moments are moments that inhere in one single individual (e.g., an apple’s color). An example of an intrinsic moment is a Mode (@e.g., John’s desires, intentions, perceptions, symptoms, skills).

Intrisic Moment Universal

Kind

Linear Temporal Structure

Material Relation

Measurable Quality Universal

Measurable Quality Universals are quality universals that can be objectively measured by cognitive agents or measurement devices, and it is possible to establish distances among their quality regions (@e.g., Weight and Height).

Measurement Quality Domain

Measurement Quality Region

Measurement Quality Structure

Measurement Reference Dimension

Measurement Reference Region

Measurement Reference Structure

Measurement Reference Structures act as scales based on quality structures. They are composed of Measurement Reference Regions. Measurement Reference Structures can be partitioned into spaces of the same magnitude according to a Unit.

Mental Moment

Mixin Universal

Mode

Mode Universal

Moment

Moments are individuals that can only exist by inhering in other individuals. In other words, moments are individuals that are existentially-dependent on their bearers (@e.g., a person’s headache, a covalent bond between atoms).

Moment Universal

Normative Description

Normative Descriptions are Social Objects that define one or more rules/norms recognized by at least one Social Agent and that can define other Social objects (the crown of the king of Spain) or Social Roles (such as president, PhD candidate or pedestrian). @Examples of normative descriptions include the Brazilian Constitution, the Federal University of Espírito Santo PhD program regulation, but also a set of directives on how to perform some actions within an organization (a Plan Description).

Object

Non-agentive substantial individuals. Objects can be Physical or Social.

Object Kind

Object Participation

Object Participation is a set of different ways than an object can participate in actions. There are four different types of Object Participation, namely: Creation, Termination, Change and Usage.

Ordinal MeaRefDimension

Participation

A participation is the portion of an event which depends exclusively on a single object. Each of participations is itself an event that can be complex or atomic but which existentially depends on a single substantial. Take for instance the event e: the stabbing of Caesar by Brutus. In this event we have the participation of Caesar himself, of Brutus and of the knife. In this case, e is composed of the individual participation of each of these entities.

Participation Universal

Person

Same as UFO::Human AgentA human Physical Agent.
E.g.: Tim Berners Lee, Dennis Ritchie, Donald Knuth.

Phase

Phasemixin

Physical Agent

Physical Object

Plan Description

Processual Role

Proposition

A Proposition is a sentence that is either true or false. The truth of a proposition is determined by its correspondence to the existence of an entity or fact in reality, the so-called truthmaker of a proposition.

Quale

Quality

Quality Region

Quality Structure

Quality Universal

Quality Universals are those universals whose instances are Qualities.

Rational MeaRefDimension

Reference Structure

Relation

Relational Role

Relator

Relator Universal

Rigid Mixin Universal

Rigid Sortal Universal

Role

Rolemixin

Scientific Measurement Domain

Self Appointment

Set

Simple Quality Universal

Situation

A situation is a particular configuration of a part of reality which can be understood as a whole. Situations can be factual or counterfactual (@e.g., the situation in which “Al Gore is the president of the USA”).

Social Agent

Social Appointment

Social Commitment

Social Moment

Social Object

Social Relator

Social Role

Sortal Universal

Subkind

Substantial

Substantials (objects) are existentially-independent Endurants (@e.g., a person, a car).

Substantial Universal

Time Point

Unfulfilled

Unit

Universal

Usage

xOrganization

UFO concepts definition.

5. Detailed Concepts

Unified Foundational Ontology (UFO) detailed concepts.


UFO::2ndOT


2ndOT


Specializes:

UFO::Entity

Definition:

Relations:

2ndOT (1..*) iof (1..*) 3rdOT
2ndOT (0..*) is subordinate to (0..*) 2ndOT
2ndOT (0..*) proper specializes (0..*) 2ndOT
2ndOT (1..1) is powertype of (0..1) Universal
2ndOT (0..*) categorizes (0..*) Universal
Universal (1..*) iof (1..*) 2ndOT
3rdOT (1..1) is powertype of (0..1) 2ndOT
3rdOT (0..*) categorizes (0..*) 2ndOT


UFO::3rdOT


3rdOT


Specializes:

UFO::Entity

Definition:

Relations:

3rdOT (0..*) is subordinate to (0..*) 3rdOT
3rdOT (0..*) proper specializes (0..*) 3rdOT
3rdOT (1..1) is powertype of (0..1) 2ndOT
3rdOT (0..*) categorizes (0..*) 2ndOT
2ndOT (1..*) iof (1..*) 3rdOT


UFO::Abstract Particular


Abstract Particular


Specializes:

UFO::Individual

Definition:

Relations:


UFO::Abstract Thing


Abstract Thing


Specializes:

Definition:

Relations:


UFO::Action


Action


Specializes:

UFO::Event (Perdurant)

Definition:

Actions are intentional events, i.e. they are caused by Intentions. Actions are events which instantiate a Plan (Action Universal) with the specific purpose of satisfying (the propositional content of) some Intention.

Relations:

Action (0..*) caused by (1..1) Intention
Action (0..*) instance of (1..1) Action Universal
Social Commitment causes Action


UFO::Action Contribution


Action Contribution


Specializes:

UFO::Action

UFO::Agent Participation

Definition:

Action Contribution is a participation that are intentional.

Relations:


UFO::Action Universal


Action Universal


Specializes:

UFO::Event Universal

Definition:

Relations:

Action (0..*) instance of (1..1) Action Universal
Complex Action Universal (0..*) <>-- (2..*) Action Universal
Closed Commitment Universal based on (1..1) Action Universal
Closed Commitment (0..*) based on (1..1) Action Universal


UFO::Agent


Agent


Specializes:

UFO::Substantial

Definition:

Agents are Substantials (Functional Complexes or Collectives) that can bear special kinds of Intrinsic Moments named Intentional Moments.

Relations:

Social Commitment (0..*) external dependence (1..*) Agent
Intentional Moment (1..*) inheres in (1..1) Agent
Mental Moment (0..*) inheres in (1..1) Agent
Agent Participation (0..*) participation of (1..1) Agent


UFO::Agent Participation


Agent Participation


Specializes:

UFO::Participation

Definition:

Relations:

Agent Participation (0..*) participation of (1..1) Agent


UFO::Anti-Rigid Mixin Universal


Anti-Rigid Mixin Universal


Specializes:

UFO::Mixin Universal

Definition:

Relations:


UFO::Anti-Rigid Sortal Universal


Anti-Rigid Sortal Universal


Specializes:

UFO::Sortal Universal

Definition:

Relations:


UFO::Appointment


Appointment


Specializes:

UFO::Commitment

Definition:

Relations:

Appointment Goal (1..1) propositional content of (1..*) Appointment
Complex Closed Appointment <>-- (2..*) Appointment


UFO::Appointment Goal


Appointment Goal


Specializes:

UFO::Goal

Definition:

Relations:

Appointment Goal (1..1) propositional content of (1..*) Appointment


UFO::Atomic Action


Atomic Action


Specializes:

UFO::Atomic Event

UFO::Action

Definition:

Relations:

Atomic Action instance of (1..1) Atomic Action Universal


UFO::Atomic Action Universal


Atomic Action Universal


Specializes:

UFO::Action Universal

Definition:

Relations:

Atomic Action instance of (1..1) Atomic Action Universal


UFO::Atomic Event


Atomic Event


Specializes:

UFO::Event (Perdurant)

Definition:

Atomic Events are those events which have no proper parts, i.e., events which cannot be further decomposed.

Relations:

Atomic Event (0..*) depends on (1..1) Substantial
Disposition (1..1) manifested by (0..*) Atomic Event


UFO::Belief


Belief


Specializes:

UFO::Mental Moment

Definition:

Relations:


UFO::Category


Category


Specializes:

UFO::Rigid Mixin Universal

Definition:

Relations:


UFO::Change


Change


Specializes:

UFO::Object Participation

Definition:

Relations:


UFO::Closed Appointment


Closed Appointment


Specializes:

UFO::Closed Commitment

UFO::Appointment

Definition:

Relations:


UFO::Closed Commitment


Closed Commitment


Specializes:

UFO::Commitment

Definition:

Relations:

Closed Commitment (0..*) based on (1..1) Action Universal
Closed Commitment instance of Closed Commitment Universal
Complex Closed Commitment <>-- (2..*) Closed Commitment


UFO::Closed Commitment Universal


Closed Commitment Universal


Specializes:

UFO::Commitment Universal

Definition:

Relations:

Closed Commitment Universal based on (1..1) Action Universal
Normative Description (1..1) defines (0..*) Closed Commitment Universal
Closed Commitment instance of Closed Commitment Universal


UFO::Collective Social Agent


Collective Social Agent


Specializes:

UFO::Social Agent

Definition:

Relations:


UFO::Commitment


Commitment


Specializes:

Definition:

Relations:

Commitment instance of Commitment Universal
Complex Commitment (0..*) <>-- (2..*) Commitment


UFO::Commitment Universal


Commitment Universal


Specializes:

Definition:

Relations:

Commitment instance of Commitment Universal


UFO::Complex Action


Complex Action


Specializes:

UFO::Entity

UFO::Action

UFO::Complex Event

Definition:

A Complex Action is composed of two or more Participations. These participations can themselves be intentional (i.e., be themselves actions) or unintentional events. For @ex, the stabbing of Caesar by Brutus includes the intentional participation of Brutus and the unintentional. participation of Caesar and the knife. In a complex action, at least one participation should be intentional, i.e., an action contribution

Relations:

Complex Action instance of (0..1) Complex Action Universal
Complex Action (0..*) <>-- (2..*) Participation


UFO::Complex Action Universal


Complex Action Universal


Specializes:

UFO::Action Universal

Definition:

Relations:

Complex Action Universal (0..*) <>-- (2..*) Action Universal
Complex Closed Commitment based on Complex Action Universal
Plan Description (0..1) describes (1..*) Complex Action Universal
Complex Action instance of (0..1) Complex Action Universal


UFO::Complex Closed Appointment


Complex Closed Appointment


Specializes:

UFO::Closed Appointment

UFO::Complex Closed Commitment

Definition:

Relations:

Complex Closed Appointment <>-- (2..*) Appointment


UFO::Complex Closed Commitment


Complex Closed Commitment


Specializes:

UFO::Closed Commitment

Definition:

Relations:

Complex Closed Commitment based on Complex Action Universal
Complex Closed Commitment <>-- (2..*) Closed Commitment


UFO::Complex Commitment


Complex Commitment


Specializes:

UFO::Commitment

Definition:

Relations:

Complex Commitment (0..*) <>-- (2..*) Commitment


UFO::Complex Event


Complex Event


Specializes:

UFO::Event (Perdurant)

Definition:

Complex events are aggregations of at least two disjoint events. A Complex Event is existentially dependent on all its proper parts and, indirectly, to the objects these proper parts depend on.

Relations:

Complex Event (0..*) <>-- (2..*) Event (Perdurant)


UFO::Composed Quality Universal


Composed Quality Universal


Specializes:

UFO::Quality Universal

Definition:

Relations:

Composed Quality Universal (0..*) <>-- (2..*) Quality Universal


UFO::Concrete Particular


Concrete Particular


Specializes:

UFO::Individual

Definition:

Relations:


UFO::Creation


Creation


Specializes:

UFO::Object Participation

Definition:

Relations:


UFO::Delegation


Delegation


Specializes:

UFO::Material Relation

Definition:

Relations:

Delegation (0..*) derived from (1..1) Delegatum


UFO::Delegatum


Delegatum


Specializes:

UFO::Social Relator

Definition:

Relations:

Delegation (0..*) derived from (1..1) Delegatum


UFO::Desire


Desire


Specializes:

UFO::Mental Moment

Definition:

Relations:


UFO::Disposition


Disposition


Specializes:

UFO::Intrinsic Moment

Definition:

Dispositions are properties (moments) that are only manifested in particular situations and that can also fail to be manifested. When manifested, they are manifested through the occurrence of events. Take for example the disposition of a magnet m to attract metallic material. The object m has this disposition even if it is never manifested, for example, because it is never close to any magnetic material. Nonetheless, m can certainly be said to possess that intrinsic moment, which it shares with other magnets.

Relations:

Disposition (1..1) manifested by (0..*) Atomic Event
Disposition (1..*) manifested by (*) Event (Perdurant)
Situation (*) activates (*) Disposition


UFO::Disposition


Disposition


Specializes:

Definition:

Relations:

Disposition (1..1) manifested by (0..*) Atomic Event
Disposition (1..*) manifested by (*) Event (Perdurant)
Situation (*) activates (*) Disposition


UFO::Endurant


Endurant


Specializes:

UFO::Concrete Particular

UFO::Individual

Definition:

Endurants are said to be wholly present whenever they are present, i.e., they are in time. They can be understood in contrast with the category of Perdurants (Processes, Events). Examples of endurants are a house, a person, the Moon, an amount of sand. For instance, we can say that an individual John weights 80kg at in circumstance c1 but 68kg at in circumstance c2. Nonetheless, we are in these two cases referring to the same individual.

Relations:

Endurant (0..*) instance of (1..*) Endurant Universal
Endurant (1..*) present at (0..*) Situation
Moment (0..*) inheres in (1..1) Endurant


UFO::Endurant Universal


Endurant Universal


Specializes:

UFO::Universal

Definition:

Relations:

Endurant (0..*) instance of (1..*) Endurant Universal
Intrisic Moment Universal (0..*) characterizes (1..*) Endurant Universal


UFO::Entity


Entity


Specializes:

Definition:

Entity is the topmost category of UFO, representing anything, concrete or abstract, and both types and individuals.

Relations:

Entity (1..*) characterized by (0..*) Moment Universal


UFO::Event (Perdurant)


Event (Perdurant)


Specializes:

UFO::Concrete Particular

UFO::Individual

Definition:

Events (also called perdurants) are individuals composed of temporal parts. They happen in time in the sense that they extend in time accumulating temporal parts. @Examples of events are a conversation, a football game, a symphony execution, a birthday party, or a particular business process.

Relations:

Event (Perdurant) (0..*) instance of (1..1) Event Universal
Event (Perdurant) (0..*) brings about (1..1) Situation
Event (Perdurant) (0..*) /directly causes (0..*) Event (Perdurant)
Event (Perdurant) (0..*) begins at (1..1) Time Point
Event (Perdurant) ends at (1..1) Time Point
Event (Perdurant) (0..*) /causes (0..*) Event (Perdurant)
Complex Event (0..*) <>-- (2..*) Event (Perdurant)
Situation (1..1) triggers (0..*) Event (Perdurant)
Disposition (1..*) manifested by (*) Event (Perdurant)


UFO::Event Universal


Event Universal


Specializes:

UFO::Universal

Definition:

Relations:

Event (Perdurant) (0..*) instance of (1..1) Event Universal


UFO::Expression


Expression


Specializes:

Definition:

Relations:

Scientific Measurement Domain (1..1) has (1..1) Expression


UFO::Externally Dependent Moment


Externally Dependent Moment


Specializes:

UFO::Intrinsic Moment

Definition:

Relations:

Relator (1..1) <>-- (2..*) Externally Dependent Moment


UFO::Fact


Fact


Specializes:

UFO::Situation

Definition:

Relations:

Fact (0..*) obtains in (1..1) Time Point


UFO::Formal Relation


Formal Relation


Specializes:

UFO::Relation

Definition:

Relations:


UFO::Fulfilled


Fulfilled


Specializes:

Definition:

Relations:


UFO::Function


Function


Specializes:

UFO::Set

UFO::Disposition

Definition:

Function is a specialization of Set that maps instances of a Quality Universal to points in a Quality Structure.

Relations:

Function (0..*) instance of (1..*) Function Universal


UFO::Function


Function


Specializes:

UFO::Disposition

Definition:

Relations:

Function (0..*) instance of (1..*) Function Universal


UFO::Function Universal


Function Universal


Specializes:

Definition:

Relations:

Function (0..*) instance of (1..*) Function Universal


UFO::Goal


Goal


Specializes:

UFO::Proposition

Definition:

The propositional content of an Intention.

Relations:

Goal (1..1) propositional content of (1..*) Intention
Complex Goal (0..*) <>-- (1..*) Goal
Measurement Goal (0..*) based on (1..*) Goal
Situation (*) satisfies (*) Goal


UFO::High Order Universal


High Order Universal


Specializes:

Definition:

Relations:


UFO::Higher-Order Object Kind


Higher-Order Object Kind


Specializes:

Definition:

Relations:

Object Kind instance of Higher-Order Object Kind


UFO::Individual


Individual


Specializes:

UFO::Entity

Definition:

Relations:

Individual (0..*) instance of (1..*) Universal
Individual (1..*) instantiates (1..1) Universal
Intrinsic Moment (1..*) inheres in (1..1) Individual


UFO::Intention


Intention


Specializes:

UFO::Commitment

UFO::Mental Moment

UFO::Intentional Moment

Definition:

Intentions are desired state of affairs (situations) for which the agent commits at pursuing (@e.g., the Intention of going to a beach resort for the next summer break).

Relations:

Intention instance of Internal Commitment Universal
Intention (0..*) inheres in (1..1) Physical Agent
Action (0..*) caused by (1..1) Intention
Goal (1..1) propositional content of (1..*) Intention


UFO::Intentional Moment


Intentional Moment


Specializes:

UFO::Intrinsic Moment

Definition:

The capacity of some properties of certain individuals to refer to possible Situations of reality. Every intentional moment has a propositional content (Proposition), which is an abstract representation of a class of situations referred by that intentional moment.

Relations:

Intentional Moment (1..*) inheres in (1..1) Agent
Proposition (1..1) propositional content of (0..*) Intentional Moment


UFO::Interaction


Interaction


Specializes:

UFO::Complex Action

Definition:

Relations:


UFO::Internal Closed Commitment Universal


Internal Closed Commitment Universal


Specializes:

UFO::Internal Commitment Universal

UFO::Closed Commitment Universal

Definition:

Relations:


UFO::Internal Commitment Universal


Internal Commitment Universal


Specializes:

UFO::Commitment Universal

Definition:

Relations:

Intention instance of Internal Commitment Universal


UFO::Interval MeaRefDimension


Interval MeaRefDimension


Specializes:

UFO::Measurement Reference Dimension

Definition:

Relations:


UFO::Intrinsic Moment


Intrinsic Moment


Specializes:

UFO::Moment

Definition:

Intrinsic Moments are moments that inhere in one single individual (e.g., an apple’s color). An example of an intrinsic moment is a Mode (@e.g., John’s desires, intentions, perceptions, symptoms, skills).

Relations:

Intrinsic Moment (1..*) inheres in (1..1) Individual


UFO::Intrisic Moment Universal


Intrisic Moment Universal


Specializes:

UFO::Moment Universal

Definition:

Relations:

Intrisic Moment Universal (0..*) characterizes (1..*) Endurant Universal


UFO::Kind


Kind


Specializes:

UFO::Rigid Sortal Universal

Definition:

Relations:


UFO::Linear Temporal Structure


Linear Temporal Structure


Specializes:

UFO::Quality Structure

Definition:

Relations:

Time Point (1..*) member of (1..1) Linear Temporal Structure


UFO::Material Relation


Material Relation


Specializes:

UFO::Relation

Definition:

Relations:

Material Relation (0..*) derived from (1..1) Relator


UFO::Measurable Quality Universal


Measurable Quality Universal


Specializes:

UFO::Quality Universal

Definition:

Measurable Quality Universals are quality universals that can be objectively measured by cognitive agents or measurement devices, and it is possible to establish distances among their quality regions (@e.g., Weight and Height).

Relations:


UFO::Measurement Quality Domain


Measurement Quality Domain


Specializes:

UFO::Measurement Quality Structure

Definition:

Relations:


UFO::Measurement Quality Region


Measurement Quality Region


Specializes:

UFO::Quality Region

Definition:

Relations:

Measurement Quality Structure (1..1) <>-- (2..*) Measurement Quality Region


UFO::Measurement Quality Structure


Measurement Quality Structure


Specializes:

UFO::Quality Structure

Definition:

Relations:

Measurement Quality Structure (1..1) <>-- (2..*) Measurement Quality Region


UFO::Measurement Reference Dimension


Measurement Reference Dimension


Specializes:

UFO::Measurement Reference Structure

Definition:

Relations:


UFO::Measurement Reference Region


Measurement Reference Region


Specializes:

Definition:

Relations:

Measurement Reference Structure (1..1) <>-- (2..*) Measurement Reference Region


UFO::Measurement Reference Structure


Measurement Reference Structure


Specializes:

UFO::Reference Structure

Definition:

Measurement Reference Structures act as scales based on quality structures. They are composed of Measurement Reference Regions. Measurement Reference Structures can be partitioned into spaces of the same magnitude according to a Unit.

Relations:

Measurement Reference Structure (1..1) <>-- (2..*) Measurement Reference Region
Measurement Reference Structure (1..*) partitioned according to (0..1) Unit


UFO::Mental Moment


Mental Moment


Specializes:

UFO::Intentional Moment

Definition:

Relations:

Mental Moment (0..*) inheres in (1..1) Agent
Mental Moment (0..*) inheres in (1..1) Physical Agent
Proposition (1..1) propositional content of (0..*) Mental Moment


UFO::Mixin Universal


Mixin Universal


Specializes:

UFO::Substantial Universal

Definition:

Relations:


UFO::Mode


Mode


Specializes:

UFO::Intrinsic Moment

Definition:

Relations:


UFO::Mode Universal


Mode Universal


Specializes:

UFO::Intrisic Moment Universal

Definition:

Relations:


UFO::Moment


Moment


Specializes:

UFO::Endurant

Definition:

Moments are individuals that can only exist by inhering in other individuals. In other words, moments are individuals that are existentially-dependent on their bearers (@e.g., a person’s headache, a covalent bond between atoms).

Relations:

Moment (0..*) inheres in (1..1) Endurant


UFO::Moment Universal


Moment Universal


Specializes:

UFO::Endurant Universal

Definition:

Relations:

Entity (1..*) characterized by (0..*) Moment Universal


UFO::Normative Description


Normative Description


Specializes:

UFO::Social Object

Definition:

Normative Descriptions are Social Objects that define one or more rules/norms recognized by at least one Social Agent and that can define other Social objects (the crown of the king of Spain) or Social Roles (such as president, PhD candidate or pedestrian). @Examples of normative descriptions include the Brazilian Constitution, the Federal University of Espírito Santo PhD program regulation, but also a set of directives on how to perform some actions within an organization (a Plan Description).

Relations:

Normative Description (0..*) recognized by (1..*) Social Agent
Normative Description (0..1) defines (0..*) Social Role
Normative Description (1..1) defines (0..*) Closed Commitment Universal
Normative Description (0..1) defines (0..*) Social Object


UFO::Object


Object


Specializes:

UFO::Substantial

Definition:

Non-agentive substantial individuals. Objects can be Physical or Social.

Relations:

Object instance of Object Kind
Object Participation (0..*) participation of (1..1) Object


UFO::Object Kind


Object Kind


Specializes:

UFO::Kind

Definition:

Relations:

Object Kind instance of Higher-Order Object Kind
Object instance of Object Kind


UFO::Object Participation


Object Participation


Specializes:

UFO::Participation

Definition:

Object Participation is a set of different ways than an object can participate in actions. There are four different types of Object Participation, namely: Creation, Termination, Change and Usage.

Relations:

Object Participation (0..*) participation of (1..1) Object


UFO::Ordinal MeaRefDimension


Ordinal MeaRefDimension


Specializes:

UFO::Measurement Reference Dimension

Definition:

Relations:


UFO::Participation


Participation


Specializes:

UFO::Event (Perdurant)

Definition:

A participation is the portion of an event which depends exclusively on a single object. Each of participations is itself an event that can be complex or atomic but which existentially depends on a single substantial. Take for instance the event e: the stabbing of Caesar by Brutus. In this event we have the participation of Caesar himself, of Brutus and of the knife. In this case, e is composed of the individual participation of each of these entities.

Relations:

Participation (0..*) participation of (1..1) Substantial
Participation (0..*) instance of (1..1) Participation Universal
Participation (0..*) /exclusively depends on (1..1) Substantial
Complex Action (0..*) <>-- (2..*) Participation


UFO::Participation Universal


Participation Universal


Specializes:

UFO::Event Universal

Definition:

Relations:

Participation Universal (1..1) induces (1..1) Processual Role
Participation (0..*) instance of (1..1) Participation Universal


UFO::Person


<<kind>>
Person


Specializes:

UFO::Physical Agent

Definition:

Same as UFO::Human AgentA human Physical Agent.
Example: Tim Berners Lee, Dennis Ritchie, Donald Knuth.

Relations:


UFO::Phase


Phase


Specializes:

UFO::Anti-Rigid Sortal Universal

Definition:

Relations:


UFO::Phasemixin


Phasemixin


Specializes:

UFO::Anti-Rigid Mixin Universal

Definition:

Relations:


UFO::Physical Agent


<<category>>
Physical Agent


Specializes:

UFO::Agent

Definition:

Relations:

Mental Moment (0..*) inheres in (1..1) Physical Agent
Intention (0..*) inheres in (1..1) Physical Agent


UFO::Physical Object


Physical Object


Specializes:

UFO::Object

Definition:

Relations:


UFO::Plan Description


Plan Description


Specializes:

UFO::Normative Description

Definition:

Relations:

Plan Description (0..1) describes (1..*) Complex Action Universal


UFO::Processual Role


Processual Role


Specializes:

Definition:

Relations:

Participation Universal (1..1) induces (1..1) Processual Role
Substantial (0..*) (0..*) Processual Role


UFO::Proposition


Proposition


Specializes:

UFO::Abstract Particular

Definition:

A Proposition is a sentence that is either true or false. The truth of a proposition is determined by its correspondence to the existence of an entity or fact in reality, the so-called truthmaker of a proposition.

Relations:

Proposition (1..1) propositional content of (0..*) Intentional Moment
Proposition (1..1) propositional content of (0..*) Mental Moment
Situation (0..*) satisfies (0..*) Proposition


UFO::Quale


Quale


Specializes:

UFO::Abstract Particular

Definition:

Relations:

Quale (1..*) member of (1..1) Quality Structure


UFO::Quality


Quality


Specializes:

UFO::Intrinsic Moment

Definition:

Relations:

Quality (0..*) instance of (1..1) Quality Universal
Quality (1..*) instantiates (1..1) Quality Universal


UFO::Quality Region


Quality Region


Specializes:

UFO::Abstract Particular

Definition:

Relations:

Quality Structure (1..1) <>-- (2..*) Quality Region
Quality Structure (1..1) constituted by (1..*) Quality Region


UFO::Quality Structure


Quality Structure


Specializes:

UFO::Set

UFO::Abstract Particular

Definition:

Relations:

Quality Structure (1..1) <>-- (2..*) Quality Region
Quality Structure (1..*) associated with (1..1) Quality Universal
Quality Structure (1..1) constituted by (1..*) Quality Region
Reference Structure (0..*) associated to (1..1) Quality Structure
Quale (1..*) member of (1..1) Quality Structure
Quality Universal (1..1) associated with > (1..1) Quality Structure


UFO::Quality Universal


Quality Universal


Specializes:

UFO::Intrisic Moment Universal

UFO::Universal

Definition:

Quality Universals are those universals whose instances are Qualities.

Relations:

Quality Universal (1..1) associated with > (1..1) Quality Structure
Quality Structure (1..*) associated with (1..1) Quality Universal
Composed Quality Universal (0..*) <>-- (2..*) Quality Universal
Quality (0..*) instance of (1..1) Quality Universal
Quality (1..*) instantiates (1..1) Quality Universal


UFO::Rational MeaRefDimension


Rational MeaRefDimension


Specializes:

UFO::Measurement Reference Dimension

Definition:

Relations:


UFO::Reference Structure


Reference Structure


Specializes:

UFO::Set

Definition:

Relations:

Reference Structure (0..*) associated to (1..1) Quality Structure


UFO::Relation


Relation


Specializes:

UFO::Universal

Definition:

Relations:


UFO::Relational Role


Relational Role


Specializes:

UFO::Role

Definition:

Relations:


UFO::Relator


Relator


Specializes:

UFO::Moment

Definition:

Relations:

Relator (1..1) <>-- (2..*) Externally Dependent Moment
Material Relation (0..*) derived from (1..1) Relator


UFO::Relator Universal


Relator Universal


Specializes:

UFO::Moment Universal

Definition:

Relations:


UFO::Rigid Mixin Universal


Rigid Mixin Universal


Specializes:

UFO::Mixin Universal

Definition:

Relations:


UFO::Rigid Sortal Universal


Rigid Sortal Universal


Specializes:

UFO::Sortal Universal

Definition:

Relations:


UFO::Role


Role


Specializes:

UFO::Anti-Rigid Sortal Universal

Definition:

Relations:


UFO::Rolemixin


Rolemixin


Specializes:

UFO::Anti-Rigid Mixin Universal

Definition:

Relations:


UFO::Scientific Measurement Domain


Scientific Measurement Domain


Specializes:

UFO::Measurement Quality Domain

Definition:

Relations:

Scientific Measurement Domain (1..1) has (1..1) Expression


UFO::Self Appointment


Self Appointment


Specializes:

UFO::Intention

UFO::Appointment

Definition:

Relations:


UFO::Set


Set


Specializes:

UFO::Abstract Thing

Definition:

Relations:


UFO::Simple Quality Universal


Simple Quality Universal


Specializes:

UFO::Quality Universal

Definition:

Relations:


UFO::Situation


Situation


Specializes:

UFO::Individual

UFO::Endurant

Definition:

A situation is a particular configuration of a part of reality which can be understood as a whole. Situations can be factual or counterfactual (@e.g., the situation in which “Al Gore is the president of the USA”).

Relations:

Situation (1..1) triggers (0..*) Event (Perdurant)
Situation (0..*) obtained at Time Point
Situation (*) activates (*) Disposition
Situation (0..*) satisfies (0..*) Proposition
Situation (*) satisfies (*) Goal
Endurant (1..*) present at (0..*) Situation
Event (Perdurant) (0..*) brings about (1..1) Situation


UFO::Social Agent


<<category>>
Social Agent


Specializes:

UFO::Agent

Definition:

Relations:

Normative Description (0..*) recognized by (1..*) Social Agent


UFO::Social Appointment


Social Appointment


Specializes:

UFO::Appointment

UFO::Social Commitment

Definition:

Relations:


UFO::Social Commitment


Social Commitment


Specializes:

UFO::Commitment

UFO::Social Moment

Definition:

Relations:

Social Commitment causes Action
Social Commitment (0..*) external dependence (1..*) Agent


UFO::Social Moment


Social Moment


Specializes:

UFO::Intentional Moment

UFO::Externally Dependent Moment

Definition:

Relations:

Social Relator <>-- (2..*) Social Moment


UFO::Social Object


Social Object


Specializes:

UFO::Object

Definition:

Relations:

Normative Description (0..1) defines (0..*) Social Object


UFO::Social Relator


Social Relator


Specializes:

UFO::Relator

Definition:

Relations:

Social Relator <>-- (2..*) Social Moment


UFO::Social Role


Social Role


Specializes:

UFO::Role

Definition:

Relations:

Normative Description (0..1) defines (0..*) Social Role


UFO::Sortal Universal


Sortal Universal


Specializes:

UFO::Substantial Universal

Definition:

Relations:


UFO::Subkind


Subkind


Specializes:

UFO::Rigid Sortal Universal

Definition:

Relations:


UFO::Substantial


Substantial


Specializes:

UFO::Endurant

Definition:

Substantials (objects) are existentially-independent Endurants (@e.g., a person, a car).

Relations:

Substantial (0..*) (0..*) Processual Role
Atomic Event (0..*) depends on (1..1) Substantial
Participation (0..*) participation of (1..1) Substantial
Participation (0..*) /exclusively depends on (1..1) Substantial


UFO::Substantial Universal


Substantial Universal


Specializes:

UFO::Endurant Universal

Definition:

Relations:


UFO::Time Point


Time Point


Specializes:

UFO::Quale

Definition:

Relations:

Time Point (1..*) member of (1..1) Linear Temporal Structure
Time Point (0..*) precedes (0..*) Time Point
Fact (0..*) obtains in (1..1) Time Point
Situation (0..*) obtained at Time Point
Event (Perdurant) (0..*) begins at (1..1) Time Point
Event (Perdurant) ends at (1..1) Time Point


UFO::Unfulfilled


Unfulfilled


Specializes:

Definition:

Relations:


UFO::Unit


Unit


Specializes:

UFO::Measurement Quality Region

Definition:

Relations:

Measurement Reference Structure (1..*) partitioned according to (0..1) Unit


UFO::Universal


Universal


Specializes:

UFO::Entity

Definition:

Relations:

Universal (1..*) iof (1..*) 2ndOT
Universal proper specializes (0..*) Universal
Individual (0..*) instance of (1..*) Universal
Individual (1..*) instantiates (1..1) Universal
2ndOT (1..1) is powertype of (0..1) Universal
2ndOT (0..*) categorizes (0..*) Universal


UFO::Usage


Usage


Specializes:

UFO::Object Participation

Definition:

Relations:


UFO::xOrganization


xOrganization


Specializes:

UFO::Social Agent

Definition:

Relations: